1. DC Motor StateSpace Model Development [1]
DC motor converts electrical energy (input voltage) to mechanical energy (shaft rotation). This electromechanical conversion involves Faraday’s law of induction and Ampere’s law for force generated on the conductor moving in a magnetic field. In ideal situation, the torque (T) developed on the motor shaft is proportional to the input current (I) and the induced electromotive force (EMF) (V) or back EMF is proportional to the speed (W) of the motor. This can be expressed as;
Where, K1 and K2 are the proportionality constant.
The electrical power (Pe) input to the motor is the product of the induced EMF and current.
And the mechanical power output (Pm) is the product of the speed of the motor and torque.
From Ohm’s law, it is known that,
Where, E is the input voltage to the motor and R is the resistance of the motor armature.
Moreover, we also know that torque produced at the motor shaft is equal to the product of the inertia of the load (J) and rate of change of angular velocity or angular acceleration.
Now, from equations (1), (6) and (7), it is found that
Using equation (2) further, the following expression can be established.
The above equation refers to the first order linear differential equation model where ‘W’ represents the state of the system and ‘E’ is the external control input. This first order equation is good enough to predict the output speed of the motor. However, in terms of measuring the position’ it is necessary to add the following equation.
Where θ is the output position of the DC motor and refers to another state of the system. Therefore, the model has one control input and two state variables (position and velocity).
Now, from equations (9) and (10), the state space model can be formulated.
Equation (11) is the model representation in state space form.
Figure (1) highlights the block diagram of the DC motor dynamic model.
From equation (9), after rearranging the terms
The coefficients in the equation (12) may be assumed as the following two constants.
Where ‘τ’ refers the time constant and ‘c’ is the DC gain.
Figure 1: Block diagram of the system represents the dynamics of the DC motor driving inertial load.
The values of τ and c will be determined by the experiment. The SIMULINK “DC MOTOR MODEL” along with the physical setup in the EEEL 155 lab has been used. The time constant and DC gain of the motor are measured in response to a unit step input.
From the experiment, the open loop response of the DC motor is shown in figure 2.
It is found that the time constant is 0.03s and c is 1.65 rad/s/volt.
Substitution of the c and τ values in equation (11) forms the matrices of the state space below.
The calculation for the constants in the above matrices is shown below.
2. LQR Design Method
To design the controller, MATLAB is used rigorously. The first step in the designing process is to check the rank of the controllability matrix. And, this could easily be done by using MATLAB commands ‘ctrb’ and ‘rank’. 'ctrb' is used to generate the controllability matrix and then 'rank' gives the rank of the generated matrix [2].
Figure 2: Open loop response of the DC motor to the unit step input.
2.1 Rank of Controllability Matrix Checking:
>> A=[0 1; 0 33.33];
>> B=[0; 55];
>> C=[1 0; 0 1];
>> D=[0];
>> M=ctrb(A,B);
>> N=rank(M)
N =
2
As the state transition matrix is 2x2 and the rank of the controllability matrix shows 2, therefore our system is state controllable.
From the state space model, following A, B, C and D matrices are obtained below.
Now, the linear quadratic optimal controller (LQR) development is shown in the following section.
2.2 System Open loop Transfer Functions:
Equation (13) is shown here again to determine the open loop transfer function of the second order system.
Taking Laplace transform on both sides of the above equation;
And, by considering speed as the output, the open loop transfer function of the first order system is,
Taking Laplace transformation,
2.3 System Stability Checking:
To check the stability of the system, MATLAB commands ‘poly’ and ‘roots’ are implemented. ‘poly’ generates the coefficients of the characteristic equation and ‘roots’ then determines the eigenvalues of the A matrix [2].
>> poly(A)
ans =
1.0000 33.3300 0
>> roots(poly(A))
ans =
0
33.3300
As there is no pole on the right side of the splane, so the system is stable. Due to not considering the damping, a pole just lies at the origin in the splane which further reminds the marginally stable situation.
2.4 Model Validation by Experiment:
The mathematical model of the DC motor system developed before has to be validated. First the open loop system response to the unit step input will be observed by the model and then by experiment.
From figure 3, it is clear that DC gain is 1.65 rad/s/v and time constant is measured 0.03s. And, these values are exactly same to the experimental values specified in figure 2. The MATLAB mfile program to represent the mathematical model along with output plots is shown below.
2.5 Coding to Generate the First Order DC Motor Model Response
close all;
clear all;
format long;
more off;
A=[0 1; 0 33.33];
B=[0; 55];
C=[1 0; 0 1];
D=0;
states = {'x' 'x_dot'};
inputs = {'r'};
outputs = {'x'; 'x_dot'};
sys_ss = ss(A,B,C,D,'statename',states,'inputname',inputs,'outputname',outputs);
t=0:0.001:5;
r=ones(size(t));
[y,t]=lsim(sys_ss,r,t);
figure(1)
plot(t,y(:,1))
title('DC Motor Response To Unit Step')
xlabel('Time')
ylabel('Angular Displacement of DC Motor')
figure(2)
plot(t,y(:,2))
title('DC Motor Response To Unit Step')
xlabel('Time')
ylabel('Angular Velocity of DC Motor')
2.6 Designing the Controller:
Designing a controller predominantly depends on the demand or criteria for the specific case. A controller may be designed for a given purpose and the same controller may further be implemented in different way in another application. So, in this study, a very general and simple control problem is defined. The problem may be described as follows;
When LQR is implemented for system control, the system eventually becomes closed loop and a state feedback gain matrix ‘K’ is generated by the controller which determines the control strategy based on the weights on the states and control effort. For this DC motor problem, there are two states: position and velocity. Input is step which is generated by computer. A program is written in MATLAB mfile for designing the LQR controller. The cost function is the important thing which places relative importance between the states and input. When designing the controller, first the weights on the states are considered 1 unit and weight on actuation is taken 1 unit also. And, this creates a problem which is shown by the following figures.
2.5 Coding to Generate the First Order DC Motor Model Response
close all;
clear all;
format long;
more off;
A=[0 1; 0 33.33];
B=[0; 55];
C=[1 0; 0 1];
D=0;
states = {'x' 'x_dot'};
inputs = {'r'};
outputs = {'x'; 'x_dot'};
sys_ss = ss(A,B,C,D,'statename',states,'inputname',inputs,'outputname',outputs);
t=0:0.001:5;
r=ones(size(t));
[y,t]=lsim(sys_ss,r,t);
figure(1)
plot(t,y(:,1))
title('DC Motor Response To Unit Step')
xlabel('Time')
ylabel('Angular Displacement of DC Motor')
figure(2)
plot(t,y(:,2))
title('DC Motor Response To Unit Step')
xlabel('Time')
ylabel('Angular Velocity of DC Motor')
2.6 Designing the Controller:
Designing a controller predominantly depends on the demand or criteria for the specific case. A controller may be designed for a given purpose and the same controller may further be implemented in different way in another application. So, in this study, a very general and simple control problem is defined. The problem may be described as follows;
When LQR is implemented for system control, the system eventually becomes closed loop and a state feedback gain matrix ‘K’ is generated by the controller which determines the control strategy based on the weights on the states and control effort. For this DC motor problem, there are two states: position and velocity. Input is step which is generated by computer. A program is written in MATLAB mfile for designing the LQR controller. The cost function is the important thing which places relative importance between the states and input. When designing the controller, first the weights on the states are considered 1 unit and weight on actuation is taken 1 unit also. And, this creates a problem which is shown by the following figures.
Figure
4: Close loop response of the DC motor model when LQR is implemented by MATLAB (a)
Position and (b) Speed.

From figure 4, the position and speed are not at all desirable as the position should increase linearly with the increase of time and the speed was found from experiment (fig. 2) and simulation (fig. 3) also contradicts the result. So, the objective here is to bring back the motor speed and position as before by tuning the LQR controller which is to optimize the relative importance between states and inputs. Figure 5 shows the results from the experiment which are quite conforming to the simulation results.
Therefore, this section may be divided into two subsections for the controller design aspects:
• Designing LQR controller in MATLAB environment
• Validating the simulation by experiment qualitatively
2.6.1 LQR Design in MATLAB:
A MATLAB function 'lqr ()' provided in the Control Systems Toolbox can be used to design an LQR for a given system with specified weighting matrices. The syntax of the function may be written as [K,P]=lqr(A,B,Q,R) , where (A,B) is the given state space model, and Q and R are the weighting matrices. Q weights on states and R weights on control. K is the state feedback gain matrix, and P is the solution matrix for the algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) [3].
A Program is written in MATLAB mfile to solve the ordinary problem as mentioned before. Controlling the states (position & velocity) is 1000000 times more important than the actuation. Considering this fact in cost function, the following program explains the steps of the LQR implementation and control achievement.
2.6.1.1. MATLAB Program for DC Motor Control by LQR:
close all;
clear all;
format long;
more off;
A=[0 1; 0 33.33]; % Model of the DC Motor in State Space
B=[0; 55];
C=[1 0; 0 1];
D=[0; 0];
Q=[0.000001 0; 0 0.000001]'*[0.000001 0; 0 0.000001];
R=[0; 1]'*[0; 1];
K=lqr(A,B,Q,R); % Implementation of LQR Controller
Ac=(AB*K); % New System Matrices by State Feedback Gain
Bc=B;
Cc=C;
Dc=D;
states={'x' 'x_dot'};
inputs={'r'};
outputs={'x'; 'x_dot'};
sys_cl = ss(Ac,Bc,Cc,Dc,'statename',states,'inputname',inputs,'outputname',outputs);
t=0:0.001:10; % Simulation Period
r=ones(size(t));
[y,t]=lsim(sys_cl,r,t); % System Response to Step Input
figure(1)
plot(t,y(:,1))
title('Step Response with LQR Control')
xlabel('Time')
ylabel('Angular Displacement of DC Motor')
figure(2)
plot(t,y(:,2))
title('Step Response with LQR Control')
xlabel('Time')
ylabel('Angular Velocity of DC Motor')
Figure 6: Closed loop response of the DC motor model when cost function of LQR is changed from before (fig.4) (a) Position and (b) Speed.

From figure 6, it is evident that the motor response shows its original response. And, this confirms the success of the controller design by simulation. In the next section, the simulation results will further be verified by the experiment.
2.6.2 Experiment:
A
SIMULINK model is developed to see the effects of the weights on the states of the DC motor. Figure 7 shows the model. This model is a real time simulation which is eventually possible by QUARC toolbox in SIMULINK. From fig.7, there
are two feedback paths for the motor speed and position which are measured by the sensors (tachometer & encoder). There is no dedicated SIMULINK block for the LQR application in the MATLAB version of EEEL 155 computers. So, two feedback gains are introduced in the model for the corresponding states. And, the weights on the states are kept same as before (mfile program) for understanding optimal control policy by LQR and validation of the predictions in simulations.
Figure 8: DC motor response when modified LQR is implemented in experiment (a) Position and (b) Speed.

References
[1]
Control system design : an introduction to statespace methods / Bernard Freidland.—Dover ed.
[2]
Ogata, K., 2002, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
[3]
Linear feedback control: analysis and design with MATLAB / Dingyü Xue, YangQuan Chen, Derek P. Atherton., the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2007. #Blog #Blogger #LQR #Matlab #Simulink #ControlSystemDesign #StateSpace

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